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Nier-Gem Niekerk, Schalk van. See eureka dia­mond PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Niekerk, Schalk van. See eureka dia­mond, STAR OF SOUTH AFRICA diamond.

Niekerk's Hope. One of the early al­luvial diamond diggings on the Vaal River, Cape Province, Republic of South Africa.

Nier-Gem. Trade name for man-made yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG).

nitrogen. Nonmetallic, colorless element symbol N, and a diatomic


gas (N2). Occurs as a trace element inclusion in the lattice in some dia­monds. Nitrogen occurs as aggregate in Type la or as dispersed-atoms in Type lb Diamonds. Nitrogen does not occur in Type II Diamonds. The pres­ence of nitrogen atoms dispersed through the crystal lattice in the order of one part in a million is be­lieved to cause the diamond to ab­sorb light in the blue region which

results in the yellowish-body color of Type I Diamonds. See type i diamond. Nizam (or Nizzam) diamond. An apparently unauthenticated stone thought to be in the treasury of the Nizam of Hyderabad (ancient Gol-conda) since before the Golconda diamond fields were exhausted. Some gem historians believe that it was found in Golconda's Kollur Mines about 1835. It was reported to have weighed either 440 or 340 carats in the rough and to have been broken during the Indian Mutiny in 1857. The Nizam may have been sold to an Indian banker for 70,000 rupees; at that time its value was placed at £ 200,000. After cutting, it was thought to have weighed 277 carats. Models made of it represent a concave-based, elongated, domed


stone covered with irregular, con­cave facets. Presumably, this great diamond has been owned by succes­sive generations of Hyderabad's rul­ers and retains this status today, al­though no confirmation has been made of this conjecture. The name is also sometimes spelled Nizzam.

Nizzam diamond. Same as Nizam diamond.

NMDC. See national mineral develop­ment CORPORATION.

Nooitgedacht. An alluvial diamond deposit near Barkly West, Cape Prov­ince, Republic of South Africa. Al­though owned by De Beers Consoli­dated Mines, Ltd., it is worked by private diggers. Recent annual pro­duction has been approximately 2000 carats.

Nooitgedacht diamond. The Noo­itgedacht yellow diamond rough weighing 325 carats was discovered by a native in the diggings at Noo­itgedacht, near Kimberley, Cape Province, Republic of South Africa, in 1953. The site had been dug for 22 years without success by its owner, Christoffel Boer. The diamond was sold by Boer for $38,000, and the discoverer was awarded $840. The disposition of the Nooitgedacht is not known.

 
Nepal Pink Diamond Nevada diamond New South Wale PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007
Nepal Pink diamond. A stone re¬ported by a United States gem dealer, while in Nepal in 1959, as a 72-carat, old Indian cut, with a "soft, rose-pink" color. Further information lacking.
Netherlands Diamant-Speurwerk Centrum. A Dutch research center established in 1954 by the Amster¬dam Jewelers' Association for the purpose of carrying out investiga¬tions aimed at improving diamond cutting techniques and machines, and increasing the quality of the Netherlands product. Nevada black diamond. A misnomer for obsidian.
Nevada diamond. A misnomer for ar¬tificially decolorized obsidian.
New Eland Mine. A small diamond pipe mine in the Boshof area, Or¬ange Free State, Republic of South Africa.
New Jagersfontein Mining & Explo¬ration Co., Ltd. The company that owned the Jagersfontein Mine, in the district of Fauresmith, Orange Free State, Republic of South Africa. The mine was closed in 1971. The prop-

erty and plant were leased under an agreement to De Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd. See JAGERSFONTEIN MINE.
New Rush. See KIMBERLEY MINE.
New South Wales. The principal diamond-producing State in Aus¬tralia. See AUSTRALIA.
New Star of the South diamond. See
NOVA ESTRELA DO SUL diamond.
New Thor Mine. A small diamond pipe mine in the Winburg area, Orange Free State, Republic of South Africa.
New Union Coldfields Group. A South African mining concern, of which Star Diamonds (Proprietary), Ltd., in the Orange Free State, is a subsidiary. See STAR Diamonds (PROPRIE¬TARY), LTD.
Ngelehun. The site of a rich alluvial diamond deposit that was reported in 1958 in Sierra Leone.
N'Gounie. An alluvial diamond de¬posit in Gabon that has been all but exhausted.
Niarchos diamond. A 426.50-carat flawless diamond of exceptionally fine color that was found in the Pre¬mier Mine, Republic of South Africa, in 1954. The late Sir Ernest Op-penheimer (Chairman of De Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., the owner of the Premier Mine), who had the rough in his personal collection for a short time, valued it at $300,000. In
1956, it was sold as part of an
$8,400,000 parcel to Harry Winston,
New York City gem dealer, who, in
1957, cut it into a 128.25-carat pear-
shaped brilliant with 58 facets on the
crown and pavilion and 86 addi¬
tional facets around the girdle. In the
same year, it was bought by Stavros
S. Niarchos, Greek ship-builder

and industrialist, for a reputed $2,000,000. A 30-carat marquise and a 40-carat emerald cut were also ob¬tained from the same rough. It was pictured in color in the April 1958 issue of National Geographic Magazine. Also known as the Ice Queen and the Pretoria diamond. nick. A minor chip out of the surface of a diamond, usually caused by a light blow. Nicks are more likely to be found along the girdle than elsewhere, although they may also appear along a facet junction or on a facet.
 
National Diamond Mining . natural point negative crystal Nepal Diamond PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

National diamond Mining Company (Sierra Leone) Ltd. See diminco. National Mineral Development Company (NMDC). A government agency in charge of exploration and development of mineral resources in India.

natural. A trade term for a portion of the original surface of a rough dia­mond that is sometimes left by the cutter on a fashioned stone, usually on the girdle. Naturals indicate an ef­fort to retain some extra weight from the original rough in the rounding-up and polishing operations. Some con­sider all naturals to be blemishes, whereas others contend that those that do not flatten the girdle outline nor extend beyond the width of a medium girdle should not be re­garded as blemishes. (See photo.)

natural grit. A term used to refer to diamond powder made by crushing natural Diamonds, as opposed to that consisting of man-made Diamonds,


called synthetic grit

. natural point. See point naif.

navet (nav-et"). A little-used English contraction of navette

. navette (nav-et"). From the French, meaning little boat. Navette and boat shaped are terms preferred in the colored-stone trade; marquise in the diamond trade. See marquise

Navsari. Indian diamond center.

Nawanger diamond. The 148-carat brilliant-cut Nawanger diamond was owned in 1970 by the Maharanee Gulabkumberba of Nawanger. It is reported to have come from Russia.

negative crystal. An angular cavity within a crystal or fashioned gem-stone, the outline of which coin­cides with a possible crystal form of the mineral in which it occurs. It is a rare occurrence in diamond.

Nepal diamond. Little is known about the beautiful 79.41-carat Nepal diamond, except that it is thought to have been mined in In­dia's Golconda region and that it was in the possession of Maharajah Bir Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana of Nepal in the late nineteenth century. In 1901, it passed to his elder son,

Gehendra Shumsher, and it re­mained in the hands of Nepalese roy­alty until recent years. The stone has been described as striking and lovely in every respect colorless, flawless and well cut and polished. Mounted in an elaborate clip-brooch and pic­tured in the April, 1958 issue of Na­tional Geographic Magazine, it was then owned by Harry Winston, New York City gem dealer, who valued it at $500,000. It was shown at Lon­don's Ageless diamond Exhibition in 1959 and subsequently sold in 1961 to a private collector.

 
narrow cross section Nassak Diamond PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

narrow cross section. The maximum measured dimension through the smallest or narrowest diameter of the girdle outline in a fancy cut dia­mond. It is used in determining the depth and table percentages in pro­portion analysis. See fancy cut.

Nassak diamond. As first known in India, the Nassak was a 90-carat triangular-shaped stone; at present it is a magnificent, colorless, 43.38-carat emerald cut. This world-re­nowned diamond was once among the treasures of a Hindu temple near the city of Nassak, where it is said to have been the eye of an idol of the god Siva, deity of destruction and re­production. After the Maharatta War of 1818, it fell into the hands of the Marquis of Hastings and became part of the "Deccan Booty." The great diamond then became known as the Nassak. It was sent to England and was valued at $150,000, but in 1831 it was sold at auction during a seri­ous depression at the "distress" price of $36,000. In 1837, it again went to the auction block and was sold to the 1st Marquis of Westminster, who mounted it in the hilt of his dress sword. The stone remained in the Westminster family for almost a cen-


tury. Then, it was sold by the 2nd Duke of Westminster to Georges Mauboussin, the Paris jeweler, who brought it to America in 1926 for display as an artistic antique. By this time, it had been cut from its original Indian weight to an 80.59-carat stone of unusual beauty, still retain­ing its triangular shape. The diamond was then returned to Paris, where it was purchased by Harry Winston, New York City gem dealer. Winston brought it back to New York, re­fashioned it to its present 43.38-carat emerald shape, and sold it to the New York jewelry firm of Trabert & Hoeffer. Although brilliancy is les­sened somewhat by an unorthodox but attractive facet arrangement on the pavilion, the stone qualifies as one of the most impressive of the world's well-known Diamonds. In addition to being flawless and abso­lutely colorless, the polish is superb and the facet symmetry is above re­proach. In 1944, the Nassak was purchased by Mrs. William B. Leeds of New York City, who wore it in a ring with two tapered diamond ba­guettes. In 1970, it was auctioned at Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, to Mr. Edward Hand for $500,000. Another name for the diamond is the Eye of Siva. Alternate spellings some­times used are Nasik, Nassac, Nas-sack and Nessuck. National Association of Goldsmiths of Great Britain and Ireland. Ab­breviation: NAG. Founded in 1894 exclusively for retail jewelers, it is the parent of the Gemmological As­sociation of Great Britain. A wide range of services is offered to mem­bers from inquiry and assistance to correspondence courses. The official


journal is the Watchmaker, jeweller and Silversmith. A Code of Trading issued by the NAG has established rules regarding diamond nomencla­ture.

 
naat Nadir Shah Namaqualand PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

naat. A Dutch term for a thin, flat, twinned diamond crystal; also the junction where the two crystals join. Cross naat is a nonparallel multiple twinning.

Nadir Shah. The leader of the Per­sians who, in 1739, invaded and sacked Delhi and carried off the famous Peacock Throne, together with several famous Diamonds. See

PEACOCK THRONE.

N.A.G. National Association of Goldsmith's, London. naif (pronounced "knife")- Also spelled naife, naive or nyf. A word of French derivation meaning the natural, unpolished faces of a dia­mond crystal; its luster or "skin." Other meanings, less frequently used, are as follows: (1) A well-formed diamond crystal, as distin­guished from a distorted one. (2) A thick or pointed diamond crystal, as distinguished from a flat one. (3) A diamond crystal possessing bright, or splendent, faces. See point naif. naife. See naif. naive. See naif.

Namaqualand (nah-mah"-kwa-land). A diamond-producing region located on Africa's southwestern coast. It is divided into two portions by the lower course of the Orange River: Little Namaqualand to the south (which forms a part of the Cape Prov­ince in the Republic of South Africa) and Greater Namaqualand to the north (which is the southern part of South-West Africa). The deposits are mostly in uplifted marine terraces, to the Diamonds were probably carried by long-shore currents from the mouth of the Orange. In the southern portion of Namaqualand the rich marine terraces are known as the oyster line, because of their content of oyster shells. Annual production, which is principally gem quality, reached 777,967 carats in 1974. The principal producing com¬panies are the Namaqualand State Mines and the Kleinzie Mine, both of which are controlled by De Beers, Consolidated Mines, Ltd.; the latter, however, has ceased production. Al¬ternate spelling Namakwaland. See NAMAQUALAND STATE MINES.
southwestern Africa. See NAMAQUA¬LAND
southwestern Africa. See namaqualand.
Napoleon diamond. A 34-carat bril¬liant, supposedly sold to Napoleon Bonaparte for £.8000, to be worn on
Namaqualand diamond producing areas
Namaqualand State Mines. The
government-operated alluvial dia¬mond mines in Namaqualand,

Last Updated ( Friday, 21 September 2007 )
 
Mr. Diamond muddy diamond Muiskraal Multifacet Diamond (trademark PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Mr. diamond. A trademarked name for colorless synthetic corundum.

muddy diamond. A little-used trade term for a diamond of inferior bril­liancy, which is caused by a lack of transparency resulting from the pres­ence of numerous minute inclusions or extensive fractures and cleavages. Often refers to a gray-brown color; sometimes also a greenish color.

Muiskraal. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in the Potchefstroom area, Transvaal Province, Republic of South Africa. The annual yield from this deposit is negligible.

Mujgawan. The name of a town in Vindhya Pradesh, India, near which is located a diamond-bearing kim-berlite pipe. See india.

Multifacet diamond (trademark). A

name used to describe a standard brilliant cut upon whose girdle has


been polished at least 40 flat facets.

See POLISHED GIRDLE.

multiple-layer diamond dressing tool. A multiple-diamond dressing tool that contains several Diamonds set in several layers within the matrix of the tool.

Murfreesboro. Arkansas town in Pike County near the largest diamond-bearing kimberlite pipe in the United States. The Crater of Diamonds State Park is 2V2 miles south of Murfrees­boro where visitors may search for Diamonds for a fee.

Mutzschen diamond. A misnomer for rock crystal.

Mwadui Mine. The principal dia­mond mine in Tanzania, formerly called Tanganyika Territory, Africa. This is the famous Williamson Mine, now owned jointly by De Beers Con­solidated Mines, Ltd., and the Gov­ernment of Tanzania. See Tanzania.

Myrtle McFarlin Canary diamond.

See MC FARLIN diamond.

 
motichul Mounce Diamond Mountain of Splendor Diamond Moyat PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

motichul. A Hindu word meaning a clear and brilliant diamond.

Mounce diamond. The Mounce rough, weighing 18.20 carats, is the tenth largest diamond found in the United States. It was discovered in


1969 by a girl playing in her yard at Princeton, Louisiana. C. E. Mounce, a Shreveport jeweler, purchased the stone and had it cut by Lazare Kap­lan & Sons into three stones. A 3.47-carat oval, the largest •■stone, was named the La Mounce and re­tained by Mr. Mounce. A 2.75-carat heart shape and a 2.27-carat mar­quise were sold for an undisclosed sum to unknown buyers.

Mountain of Light diamond. See

KOH-I-NOOR diamond.

Mountain of Splendor diamond.

Reported in some older works to have been a 135-carat diamond in the Persian Regalia. Nothing else is known of this stone. In 1966 this diamond was not among the Crown Jewels of Iran according to Dr. V. B. Meen.

mounted goods. (1) Diamonds that have been set in rings. (2) Diamonds set in any kind of jewelry. See goods. mounting. A trade term for that por­tion of a piece of jewelry in which a gem or other object is to be set or has been set.

Moyat (first name unknown). An in­vestigator who, in the late 1800's, at­tempted unsuccessfully to produce synthetic Diamonds by pressing iron filings and carbon particles in a con­tainer filled with liquid carbon dioxide and applying an electric cur­rent. See SYNTHETIC diamond.

Moyen, or Middle, Congo. One of

the minor diamond-producing ter­ritories in what was French Equato­rial Africa. Moyen Congo became the Congo Republic (not to be con­fused with Zaire, which is the suc­cessor to the Belgian Congo). This former French colony lies to the


northeast of the Congo and Ubangi Rivers.

 
Moon Diamond Mooifontein Moon of the Mountains Diamond PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Mooifontein. A minor alluvial dia­mond deposit in the Bloemhof area, Transvaal Province, Republic of South Africa. The production from this deposit is unimportant.

Moon diamond. A diamond iden­tified by this name, weighing 183 carats, was sold at auction in 1942 to an H. W. Thome for the low figure of £5200, then passed into the hands of a foreign potentate, whose name was not divulged. The Moon was de­scribed as a well-cut brilliant, almost circular, rather thick, but with good fire and a faint tinge of yellow. It was 1% inches in diameter and had a 41-facet crown, the bezel facets being divided into two parts. Almost cer­tainly not Indian in origin, it is more probably South African, which would account for its lack of history. Further details are unavailable.

Moon of Baroda diamond. The Moon of Baroda is said to have been in the family of the Gaekwar of Baroda for about 500 years. It is a 24.95-carat, pear-shaped, canary-


yellow Indian diamond. It was sent to the Empress Maria Theresa of Aus­tria in 1787 by the then Gaekwar, but was later returned to him. The stone was exhibited in Los Angeles in 1926, and in 1944 the then Gaek­war sold it to Meyer Rosenbaum, De­troit jeweler, for a sum reported to be about $100,000. If it crosses water, it is said to be unlucky for its owner.

Moon of the Mountains diamond. Although the Moon of the Mountains was known to be among the Russian Crown Jewels in the nineteenth cen­tury, today it is considered to be another celebrated "lost" diamond of history. The description of this 126-carat Indian diamond by early chroniclers may have been faulty. Some present-day investigators be­lieve that it may have been confused with the Great Mogul, Orloff and Darya-i-Nur, all of which may refer to the same stone that was taken from Delhi by the Persian conqueror Nadir Shah and eventually given to Catherine the Great by Prince Orloff.

Mora diamond. A misnomer for rock crystal.

Morgenzon. A minor alluvial dia­mond deposit in the Kimberley area, Cape Province, Republic of South Af­rica. Current production from this digging is minuscule.

Morrissey diamond. See dewey dia­mond.

Morrow diamond. Largest diamond found in Georgia; a 4.50-carat yel­lowish crystal. Discovered at Mor­row Station, Clayton Co., 1887. Pres­ent location not known.

Morse, Henry D. A Boston diamond merchant and cutter who is said to have originated (about 1865), by trial

 
Mogok diamond Molopo Reserve PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Mogok diamond. A misnomer for

colorless topaz found at Mogok,

Burma.

Mogul diamond. See great mogul

diamond.

Mogul (or Moghal, Mughul) Dynasty (1562-1857). Founded by Baber the Mongol. The Mogul Empire em­braced all of northern and central India and the Afghan lands about Kabul and Kandahar. The greatest of Baber's descendants were Akbar, Shah Jehan and Aurangzeb. After the death of Aurangzeb (1707), the Em­pire declined rapidly. In 1739, Nadir Shah, of Persia, sacked Delhi, the capital of the Empire, and the title of "Great Mogul" that was given to the emperors became but a name. The Mogul emperors had vast stores of gems, particularly Diamonds. Taver-nier, often referred to as "the father of the diamond trade," traveled exten­sively in India, and at the court of Aurangzeb he saw a diamond some­times known as the Great Mogul, as well as many other gems. See great

MOGUL diamond; TAVERNIER, JEAN BAPTISTE.


Mohs scale. The most commonly used scale of relative hardness of minerals: diamond, 10; corundum, 9; topaz, 8; quartz, 7; feldspar, 6; apatite, 5; fluorite, 4; calcite, 3; gyp­sum, 2; talc, 1. The divisions are not equal, having been chosen arbitrarily by the German mineralogist, Mohs. The difference between 9 and 8 is considerably greater than between any of the lower numbers. Between 9 and 10 the difference is greater than between 9 and 1. See hardness,

SCLEROMETER.

Moissan, Ferdinand Frederic

Henri (1852-1907). A French chemist who, in 1893, claimed to have produced minute Diamonds by fusing iron and carbon in an electric furnace and plunging the molten mass into water or molten lead. There was never any conclusive proof that the tiny hard crystals made by this process were actually Diamonds. See synthetic dia­mond.

Molopo Reserve. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in the Mafeking area, Cape Province, Republic of South Africa. Current production is negligible.

Monastery Mine. A small diamond pipe mine in the Winburg area, Orange Free State, Republic of South Africa.

monocular microscope. A magnifier equipped with a single objective and ocular (eyepiece). See microscope. Montleleo Mine. A small diamond pipe mine in the Winburg area, Orange Free State, Republic of South Africa.

monzonite. A silica-rich plutonic igneous rock said to be associated


with Diamonds in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

 
Mittag Modder River Moe gauge PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Mittag. See area m.

Mittagong. An alluvial diamond min­ing area 80 miles southwest of Syd­ney, Australia. The Mittagong Dia­mond Mine (Southeys Mine) oper­ated in this area from 1893 to 1895. The recovery of Diamonds was very poor.

mixed cut. A gem cut in which the crown is round brilliant cut and the pavilion is step cut. Sometimes the reverse is seen.

MMTC. Abbreviation for the state-owned Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation of India; in part, dealing in rough Diamonds.

Modder River. A tributary of the Vaal River, between Kimberley and Bloemfontein, Republic of South Af­rica. It was once an important allu­vial diamond-mining district.

moderne cut. See fancy-cut diamond. mode rose cut. A flat-backed rose cut that has a hexagonal outline with 6 facets on the dome side.

Moe gauge. A caliper-type gauge that, together with accompanying ta

bles, is used to estimate the weights of either mounted or unmounted round brilliant-cut Diamonds by measurements of width and depth. It is not a precision instrument. See mil­limeter MICROMETER, LEVERIDGE GAUGE.

Mogul cut. An older style of cutting which is a rather lumpy form with a broad, often asymmetrical base, an upper termination consisting of a set of usually four shallow facets or a ta­ble, and two or more zones of strip facets parallel to the base and ori­ented vertically. It is derived from cleavage pieces. The Taj-e-mah Di­amond illustrates this cut.

Last Updated ( Friday, 21 September 2007 )
 
Minas Gerais Miner Diamond Mirror of Naples Diamond mishkal PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Minas Gerais (Mean"-ahs Zhee-rice"). A major diamond-producing state in Brazil. See brazIl, minas

TRIANGLE.

Minas Gerais diamond. Found on the San Antonio River, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1937; 172.50 carats. Only one stone, a brilliant of about 80 carats, is reported to have been cut from this rough. Location unknown.

Minas Triangle. A famous dia­mond-mining area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Famous for large stones (including the Darcy Vargas and the Presidente Vargas) and fancy-colored Diamonds.

Miner diamond. A 44.62-carat well-crystallized rough diamond found in the Mir pipe. Now in the U.S.S.R. diamond Fund in Moscow.

Miridis. A trade name for synthetic rutile.

Mirnyy. The center of the dia­mond-mining activity in eastern Siberia. See u.s.s.r.

Mir pipe. One of the richest di­amond-bearing kimberlites in east­ern Siberia located in the basin of the Lesser Batuobiya tributary to the Vil-yui in Yakutiya. The pipe is oval in section, about 400 to 600 meters in diameter at the top. Mining is dif­ficult because of permafrost condi­tions causing the soil and ground to be frozen to depths of 350 meters, even in summer.

Mirror of Naples diamond. A fine-quality diamond; size unknown. Be­longed to Mary, sister of Henry VIII, who married Louis XII of France. At


that time, valued at about 30,000 crowns ($37,500). Further historical details lacking.

Mirror of Portugal diamond. James I of England, writing to his son the Prince of Wales, who later became Charles I, mentioned the "Mirroure of Portugall Dyamont," then appa­rently owned by him. Later, during the Civil War, Charles' wife, Queen Henrietta Maria, is said to have taken the gem to France and to have pledged it with the Duke of Epernon. Cardinal Mazarin is said to have paid off the Duke with the Queen's con­sent and to have taken possession of the diamond. The stone is believed to have later been known as the Wth-Mazarin or the Mazarin. Be­queathed by the Cardinal, together with other fine Diamonds, to Louis XIV, it became part of the French Re­galia, which was stolen from the Garde Meuble (Royal Treasury) dur­ing the great jewel robbery of 1792. (Note: Cardinal Jules Mazarin (1602-1661) was a French cardinal and statesman and prime minister under Louis XIV. He is given the credit, if not for developing the ear­liest form of the brilliant, at least for popularizing it.)

mishkal. Early traditional unit of Muhammedan weight. The mishkal was described as equaling 40 rati and the Koh-i-Nur was reported by Sultan Barbar to weigh about 8 mish-kals.

Mitchemanskraal. One of the more productive alluvial diamond deposits in the Barkly West area, Cape Prov­ince, Republic of South Africa. The total output of one recent year was approximately 3400 carats.

 
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